Rust OSDev Operating System Development in Rust

The Hermit Operating System

Hermit is a unikernel project, that is completely written in Rust. Unikernels are application images that directly contain the kernel as a library, so they do not require an installed operating system (OS). They are typically used in virtualized environments, which build the backbone of typical cloud and edge infrastructures.

Virtualization Designs

Common virtualized environments are based on classical virtual machines. In this case, complete machines are emulated or virtualized, and common operating systems are running on both the host and guest sides:

Structure of a common virtualization environment

This technique is established (VMware, Hyper-V, etc.) and widely used. However, it introduces additional overhead, especially regarding memory consumption and performance.

An alternative approach to common virtual machines is OS-level virtualization, where the kernel allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances. These isolated instances are also known as “containers.” Typical representatives are LXC and Docker, which promise less overhead in comparison to common virtual machines. However, the isolation between the processes is weaker and may provide less security.


Often, only one application (e.g., a web server) is running in the container or the virtual machine. In this case, a unikernel is an attractive solution. The kernel is provided as a static library and linked to the application. As the images directly contain the OS kernel, unikernels can be directly booted inside a virtual machine and do not require the typical software stack containing a Linux kernel and its user land within the VM.

Unikernels do not provide system calls in the classical sense, as everything is running with the privilege level of a kernel, and what is typically done via system calls is provided via a common function call. At first glance, this sounds more insecure than previous approaches. However, these kernels are expected to run within a virtual machine, which isolates the application from the real system. In addition, common compiler analysis is used to check the complete software stack, and unneeded components can even be removed, which can reduce the attack surface of the application.

Structure of a library operating system

Well-known unikernels are kernels such as MirageOS and Unikraft. MirageOS is written in OCaml, while Unikraft still uses C as the programming language of choice. In contrast to these kernels, Hermit is completely written in Rust to benefit from Rust's performance and security behavior.


In principle, every existing Rust application can be built on top of Hermit. However, unikernels are single-tasking operating systems. Consequently, support for the system call fork and inter-process communication is missing. In addition, a classical C library is missing, which is typically used as an interface to the operating system. Every crate that bypasses the standard runtime and tries to communicate directly with the operating system does not work without modifications. However, many applications do not depend on these features and work on Hermit.


Unikernels can be highly optimized. For instance, we optimized the network stack of Hermit. Hermit uses smoltcp as the network stack, which is completely written in Rust. As the interface between the guest and host operating systems, we use virtio, which is a para-virtualized driver for KVM and widely used in virtualized Linux environments.

The following figure compares Linux with Hermit, where both are running as guests inside a virtual machine running on top of a Linux-based host system:

Bandwidth of the Hermit's experimental network interface

Especially for small messages, Hermit is faster than Linux.


Hermit is also a research project to evaluate new operating system designs, that improve the scalability and security of operating systems in cloud environments. For instance, Hermit provides classical techniques to improve security behavior, like stack guards and separating the application stack from the libOS stack. However, a library operating system typically uses a common function call to enter the kernel. A classical separation of user and kernel space by entering a higher privilege level is missing.

In a paper, we presented a modified version of Hermit, which provides intra-unikernel isolation with Intel Memory Protection Keys (MPK). MPK is a relatively new hardware primitive that provides per-thread permission control over groups of pages in a single address space with negligible switching overhead, making it a compelling candidate for use in unikernels.

MPK requires modification of page tables at a small performance cost. Four previously unused bits of each page table entry (the 62nd to the 59th on x86-64) are exploited by MPK. Since MPK exploits four bits of the page table entry, it supports up to 15 protection keys. MPK controls per-thread permission on groups of pages. Each core has a PKRU register (32 bits) containing a permission value. The value of the PKRU register defines the permission of the thread currently running on that core for each group of pages containing a protection key in their page table entries. Unlike page-table-level permission, MPK provides thread-local memory permission.

We provide user and kernel separation, so we simply see the entire application as an untrusted component, independently of application-specific characteristics such as the language it is written in or the level of skill of the application’s programmer. In addition, we divide the kernel code into trusted and untrusted components. Trusted kernel components represent pieces of code written in a memory-safe language, i.e., offering strong security guarantees. Untrusted kernel components correspond to code written either in memory-unsafe languages or in unsafe Rust code blocks.

By entering the library operating system through the application binary interface, the protection keys will be automatically changed, which allows access to the kernel stack and the kernel heap. Unauthorized access from within the application will trigger a page fault, which will be handled by the library operating system.

Getting Started

Take a look at hermit-os/hermit-rs-template for a simple starter application.

The Hermit platform is an official Rust target. You can either use our prebuilt rust-std artifacts on stable Rust or use build-std on nightly Rust. Alternatively, you can compile the whole Rust compiler for Hermit, of course.


In the near future, we plan to stabilize the interface to the hardware. For instance, the support of virtiofs is at an early stage. In addition, the integration into the Rust standard library isn't finalized yet, and the current version runs only on x86-64. In the future, we want to also support AArch64 as a processor architecture.